About coffee over coffee – is coffee harmful?

Article by  Karolina Jakiel

Coffee is one of the favorite drinks of most people. Often the first thing we do after waking up is drink coffee. We reach for it in the moment of pleasure or the moment of fatigue. This drink has many health benefits and it is one of the most popular drinks in the world.

Coffee contains over 1000 active compounds. Among them, caffeine, kafestol, chlotogenic acid and diterpenes are distinguished. Caffeine is a natural ingredient of vegetable origin. It also occurs in the leaves of the tea bush and cocoa seeds.

The above-mentioned ingredients have a potentially beneficial effect, including oxidative, anti-inflammatory or antineoplastic activity. The final effect of coffee is influenced by the type of coffee, the burning of grains, the method of making coffee and the predispositions, including the genotype and intestinal microbiota of a person consuming coffee.

On the basis of research that has been conducted it was hypothesised that the daily intake of 3 cups of coffee was associated with a lower risk of premature death.

In addition, consumption of 3 cups of coffee was also associated with a lower risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke and ischemic heart disease

People who drink from 3 to 5 cups of coffee a day are less likely to have cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke.

Consumption of one extra cup of coffee daily among non-smokers reduces the risk of death from cancer by 2%.

People who drink coffee were less likely to have cancer of the prostate, endometrium, mouth, skin and liver.

The research shows that people who consume coffee in comparison with people who do not drink coffee are less exposed to the risk of liver cirrhosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

In the case of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the risk was reduced by 30%.

Consumption of coffee was also associated with a significantly lower risk of cholelithiasis.

Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee have a significant influence on the prevention of type II diabetes.

In addition, coffee protects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases.

Despite the positive effects of coffee it is not indicated in pregnant women. High and low consumption of coffee by pregnant women was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight, pregnancy loss and premature birth in the first and second trimester. Caffeine readily crosses the placenta and the enzyme metabolizing coffee in the fetus is low.

In addition to the positive effects of coffee consumption, incidents report an increased risk of fractures among women who consume coffee, while in men the risk is much lower, however, this topic requires further research.

People who suffer from reflux disease should give up drinking coffee since increases the secretion of gastric juice making symptoms worse.  

Consumption of coffee definitely more often brings more benefits than damage. Contrary to the circulating opinion on the dehydrating effect of caffeine, studies have proven that moderate consumption of caffeine (4 mg / kg body weight – 4 cups) does not adversely affect the body’s water content. Intake of coffee in moderation contributes to the daily need for liquids without causing a harmful effect on the balance of fluids in the body.

Caffeine in the amount of 100 – 300 mg affects the central nervous system, thanks to which it supports thought processes, supports concentration, improves short-term memory, reduces fatigue and drowsiness.

Based on current knowledge caffeine intake ranges from 400 mg per day are safe for health . Consumption of this amount of coffee does not cause adverse health effects and may be associated with possible benefits. However, it should be remembered that excessive consumption of caffeine may result in insomnia, hyperactivity, arrhythmia and stomach problems. People with reflux disease, pregnant women and nursing women, people with osteoporosis and high blood pressure should limit caffeine intake.

More information:

  • R. Poole, O. J Kennedy, P. Roderick, J. A Fallowfield, P. C Hayes, J. Parkes; Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes; Cite this as: BMJ 2017;359:j5024
  • S. C. Killer , A. K. Blannin, A. E. Jeukendrup: No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a FreeLiving Population. PLOS ONE. January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e84154
  • Nawrot P., Jordan S., Eastwood J., Rotstein J., Hugenholtz A., Feeley M: Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit. Contam. 2003, 20, 1, 1-30
  • Smith A.: Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2002, 40. 1243-1255

Karolina Jakiel – master of dietetics specialist in psychodietetics.
She obtained her master’s degree at the University of Rzeszow in Poland, completed post-graduate studies in psychodietetics at the University of Social Sciences and Humanities (SWPS University) in Katowice in Poland.
During her studies, she participated in numerous courses and trainings, among others: diagnostics in the office of a dietician, insulin resistance, psychodietetics, sports dietetics, oncological dietetics, and diet for the elderly.
During her studies she took an active part in the activities of the Scientific Circle of Dieticians at the University of Rzeszow.
She is interested in healthy eating and shares her ideas through her profile in social media.

About Dr Antonella Grima

Dr. Antonella Grima M.D. M.Sc. Pg.Dip. is the founder of the Health and Nutrition Centre in Luqa, Malta. She is a Medical Doctor specialised in Public Health as well as a Registered Nutritionist. Read More >

Our Healthy Newsletter

newsletter_circle.jpgSubscribe to our newsletter to keep yourself up to date with the latest tips and news about healthy living and nutrition. Click Here to Sign Up >

Recent Posts



Article by  Dominika Zielińska The food industry offers a lot of products for people who care about their figure. Low-fat or low-sugar versions of many products fill supermarket shelves. However, the value of such food as helpful in slimming is debatable and some products have a worse nutritional value than their “fattening” counterparts. NON-FAT PRODUCTS Store… Continue Reading

Cooking Without Fat

Cooking Without Fat

Article by  Dominika Zielińska WAYS OF NO-FAT COOKING Dietary modification that is beneficial for health consists mainly in reducing the amount of fat. In addition to choosing low-fat products, we are able to reduce the consumption of fat used in cooking. This article shows how to prepare meals with reduced fat. Steam cooking is fast, fat-free… Continue Reading



Article by  Dominika Zielińska SODIUM (NA) This metallic element is important for life. It is the main component of table salt, spread throughout the body in the fluid surrounding the cells. It plays a very important role in maintaining the osmotic pressure in the tissues, allowing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to and from the… Continue Reading



Article by  Dominika Zielińska Increasingly popularized as a healthy food, yogurt has been consumed for centuries in many long-lived nations of the world. Now re-discovered as a probiotic, it is simply fermented with the participation of various strains of bacteria, including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteńum bifidum. Bacteria make the milk curd, and this happens thanks to… Continue Reading

Health Watch

Peanut allergy theory backed up by new research

Peanut allergy theory backed up by new research

Article by By Dominic Howell BBC News In 2015, a study claimed early exposure to peanut products could cut the risk of allergy by 80%. Now researchers say “long-lasting” allergy protection can be sustained – even when the snacks are later avoided for a year. The New England Journal of Medicine study looked at 550 children… Continue Reading

If You’ve Replaced Olive Oil with Coconut Oil, You Must Read This

If You’ve Replaced Olive Oil with Coconut Oil, You Must Read This

Article by Sangeeta Pradhan, RD, LDN, CDE as published on foodandnutrition.org The relationship between saturated fats and increased risk of heart disease has been well-established in the medical literature. In March 2014, however, a systematic review and meta-analysis published in the Annals of Internal Medicine muddied the waters, suggesting that there was limited evidence linking saturated fat… Continue Reading

3 Reasons to Give Up on Fad Diets

3 Reasons to Give Up on Fad Diets

By: Sarah Romotsky It’s a fact: fad diets are here to stay. From Lord Byron’s popular diet of potatoes drenched in vinegar (stomach problems, anyone?) to the grapefruit diet and cleanses, there’s always a new “it” diet. Believe me, I know how enticing it is to believe that there is one answer to being healthy, and… Continue Reading

Foods to Fight Iron Deficiency

Foods to Fight Iron Deficiency

You may pump iron at the gym a few times a week, but your body pumps it continuously through the bloodstream every day. Iron is needed to make hemoglobin, a part of red blood cells that acts like a taxicab for oxygen and carbon dioxide. It picks up oxygen in the lungs, drives it through… Continue Reading

Copyright 2016 - 2018 The Health and Nutrition Centre | Designed and developed by Strategic Communications

By continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. more information

The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.